The species is native of Mediterranean basin. The Olea europaea L. (1753) is a shrub or evergreen tree, long-living as it can reach and exceed the 5 centuries of life with specimens in the wild of an estimated age of 2000 years, up to about 15 m tall and with a gnarled and twisted trunk with the age and greyish bark, whitish in the juvenile branches; the rooting apparatus is expanded and usually superficial.
It has slow growth and is very long-lived: in favorable climatic conditions it can become millennial. The plant begins to bear fruit 3-4 years after planting, full productivity begins after 9-10 years and maturity is reached after 50 years. The fruit is a drupe. Protect from cold, damage to wood starts at - 7 ° C.